K = 16 admixture analysis of ancient American genomes

At the bottom of this post is a plot for a K = 16 ADMIXTURE analysis that includes 14 ancient samples from the Americas. Above the plot are the admixture percentages for the ancient American samples.

The correspondences between the colors and the components are as follows:

      Bushman and Pygmy
      Western Negroid
      Eastern Negroid
      European hunter-gatherer Caucasoid
      Northern European Caucasoid
      Southern European Caucasoid
      Middle Eastern Caucasoid
      Veddoid-Caucasoid hybrid
      Taiwanese aborigine Mongoloid
      Southern Mongoloid
      Northern Mongoloid
      Itelmen and Koryak
      Eskimo
      Northern Amerindian
      Southern Amerindian
      Australoid

This analysis gives a breakdown of the additional Caucasoid admixture in the Chinchorro mummy sample identified by the K = 4 analysis.

The Chinchorro woman didn’t have any of the Middle Eastern component, so her additional Caucasoid admixture was clearly from Europeans and not Middle Easterners or North Africans. Note that the Middle Eastern component is present in the modern Amerindian samples that have additional Caucasoid admixture, because that admixture is primarily from the post-Columbian Spanish, and the post-Columbian Spanish show a significant amount of the Middle Eastern component.

She had 12.17% of the European hunter-gatherer component. Modern Europeans show almost none of this component, but it is present in significant amounts in all prehistoric European samples, except for Europe’s first farmers, most of whom lacked it. Her additional Caucasoid admixture is therefore consistent with the genetic makeup of the Europeans of her time, around 4000 BC.

She doesn’t show any of the Northern European component. Note that this component and the European hunter-gatherer component are closely related. I think that with a larger number of SNPs she would show both of these components, but that since the number of SNPs is limited all of this kind of admixture is ending up being assigned to the hunter-gatherer component.

She had 8.42% of the Southern European component. This component is completely absent in almost all available Mesolithic European genomes, but it makes up almost all of the genomes of Europe’s early and middle Neolithic farmers. Note that the Mesolithic Loschbour hunter-gatherer does show some of this component. While large amounts of this component certainly did spread throughout Europe during the early Neolithic, I think that it has been present in smaller amounts along the entire Mediterranean coast of Europe since the Mesolithic. It is therefore possible that the Chinchorro woman’s European ancestors came to South America as early as the Mesolithic.

She shows 15.32% of the Veddoid-Caucasoid hybrid component. This component does not appear in any Mesolithic or Neolithic European samples not belonging to Y haplogroup R. It appears in the Y haplogroup R Mal’ta 1 sample, in the closely related Afontova Gora 2 sample, in the R1b Pit Grave samples, and in the R1b Bell Beaker samples. The appearance of this component in the Chinchorro woman shows that haplogroup R was present along the Atlantic coast of Western Europe before 4000 BC, contrary to the idiotic belief of David Reich, David Anthony, Eske Willerslev, Greg Cochran, David “Davidski” Wesolowski, J. Maciamo Hay, and countless moronic blog and forum commenters that haplogroup R was magically confined to Eastern Europe until a thousand or more years later. The reason that all these people hold this idiotic belief is that they all have a mindless adherence to Marija Gimbutas’s Kurgan hypothesis, which has become a dogma in academia. Haplogroup R1b is associated with the centum Indo-European languages, and for Gimbutas’s idiocy to be maintained, R1b must be absent from Western Europe before the Copper Age. The reason that we see admixture from haplogroup R people in a Chinchorro woman from 4000 BC is that, as I stated for the first time early last year, haplogroup R and Indo-European languages were spread across Europe by the Gravettians during the Paleolithic, and not by Gimbutas’s mythical horse-riding Kurgan warriors from the Pontic-Caspian steppe during the Copper, Bronze, and Iron Ages.

I am going to run some more K = 16 ADMIXTURE analyses of these ancient American genomes, and if any of them end up producing a set of components that I think is better than the set produced by the analysis here, then I will update this post with the new analysis.

                     BC23  BC27  BC28  BC29 Chinc Eno65    F9
Northern Amerindian 37.86 99.98 85.45 99.98 29.25 50.56 87.04
Southern Amerindian 44.32  0.00  3.42  0.00 28.30 48.54  4.12
Veddoid-Caucasoid    0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00 15.32  0.00  0.00
Northern European   13.16  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Northern Mongoloid   0.00  0.00 11.12  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Southern Mongoloid   0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  6.88
European HG          0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00 12.17  0.00  0.00
Eskimo               0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Taiwanese aborigine  3.59  0.00  0.00  0.00  6.53  0.88  0.00
Southern European    0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  8.42  0.00  0.00
Australoid           0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  1.95
Eastern Negroid      1.05  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Middle Eastern       0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Itelmen and Koryak   0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Western Negroid      0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Bushman and Pygmy    0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00

                    MA572 MA575 M1492  MOM6  AM66  AM72  AM73
Northern Amerindian 40.30 81.67 64.28 81.64 70.89 44.70 72.05
Southern Amerindian 59.68 15.88 10.16 18.34 29.09 55.29 27.93
Veddoid-Caucasoid    0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Northern European    0.00  0.00  1.99  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Northern Mongoloid   0.00  2.43  1.18  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Southern Mongoloid   0.00  0.00  7.66  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
European HG          0.00  0.00  1.87  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Eskimo               0.00  0.00 12.85  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Taiwanese aborigine  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Southern European    0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Australoid           0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Eastern Negroid      0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Middle Eastern       0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Itelmen and Koryak   0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Western Negroid      0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00
Bushman and Pygmy    0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00

ancient-america-k-16-1

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One comment on “K = 16 admixture analysis of ancient American genomes

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